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Co-Principal Investigators: Claudia Kawas, MDMaria Corrada, ScD
Co-Investigators: Annlia Paganini-Hill, PhD; Dana Greenia, RN, MS

Grandmother Reading with Granddaughter --- Image by © Royalty-Free/Corbis

The 90+ Study was initiated in 2003 to study the oldest-old, the fastest growing age group in the United States.  The 90+ Study is one of the largest studies of the oldest-old in the world. More than 1,600 people have enrolled.  Because little is known about people who achieve this milestone, the remarkable increase in the number of oldest-old presents a public health priority to promote the quality as well as the quantity of life.

The 90+ Study participants

Initial participants in The 90+ Study were once members of The Leisure World Cohort Study (LWCS), which was started in 1981.  The LWCS mailed surveys to every resident of Leisure World, a large retirement community in Orange County, California (now incorporated as the city of Laguna Woods).  Using the 14,000 subjects from the LWCS, researchers from The 90+ Study were able to ask, What allows people to live to age 90 and beyond?

Studying the oldest-old

Participants of The 90+ Study are visited every six months by researchers who perform neurological and neuropsychological tests. Our researchers at the Clinic for Aging Research and Education (CARE), located in Laguna Woods, obtain information about diet, activities, medical history, medications and numerous other factors. Additionally, participants are given a series of cognitive and physical tests to determine how well people in this age group are functioning.

Goals of the study
  • Determine factors associated with longevity:  What makes people live to age 90 and beyond?  What types of food, activities or lifestyles are associated with living longer?
  • Examine the epidemiology of dementia in the oldest-old: How many people aged 90 and older have dementia?  How many become demented each year?  What are ways to remain dementia-free into your 90s?
  • Examine rates of cognitive and functional decline in the oldest-old: How do memory loss and disability affect those in their 90s?  How can people prevent memory loss and disability at this age?
  • Examine clinical pathological correlations in the oldest-old:  Do the brains of people in their 90s show evidence of memory loss and dementia?  Do people with dementia have differences in their brains that can be detected and treated?  Determining Modifiable Risk Factors for Mortality and Dementia: What kinds of things can people change in their lives to live longer?  Can people change their risk of dementia through diet, exercise or supplements?
Major findings

Researchers from The 90+ Study have published many scientific papers in premier journals.  Some of the major findings are:

  • People who drank moderate amounts of alcohol or coffee lived longer than those who abstained.
  • People who were overweight in their 70s lived longer than normal or underweight people did.
  • Over 40% of people aged 90 and older suffer from dementia while almost 80% are disabled. Both are more common in women than men.
  • About half of people with dementia over age 90 do not have sufficient neuropathology in their brain to explain their cognitive loss.
  • People aged 90 and older with an APOE2 gene are less likely to have clinical Alzheimer’s dementia, but are much more likely to have Alzheimer’s neuropathology in their brains.

The 90+ Study is seeking new participants. If you are at least 90 years old and are willing to participate in twice annual visits and donate your brain to research after death, you may be eligible to enroll in The 90+ Study.

Please contact 949.768.3635 or for more information.

The 90+ Study Team

Co-Principal Investigators

Claudia Kawas, MD

Maria Corrada, ScD


Dana Greenia, RN, MS

Annlia Paganini-Hill, PhD

S. Ahmad Sajjadi, MD, PhD

Neurological Examiners

Miyoung Kim, MD, MS

Farah Mozaffar, MD

Neuropsychological Testers

Colette Aguirre, MPH, BA

Jaime Demoss, BA

Zarui A. Melikyan, PhD

Christina Whittle, BS

Study Coordination/Administration

Zeinah Al-darsani, BS

Montez Hester, BS

Maria Kirkwood

Data Management/Statistical Analysis

Natalie Bryant, BS

Blinda Li, MS


Jude Tahrswi


Neuropathologic burden and dementia in nonagenarians and centenarians. Cholerton BA, Latimer CS, Crane PK, Corrada MM, Gibbons LE, Larson EB, Kawas CH, Keene CD, Montine TJ. Neurology. 2024 Feb 13;102(3):e208060. [Online 2024 Jan 4]. PMID: 38175995. 


LATE and potential estrogen-related risk factors collected 30 years earlier: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Montine TJ, Bukhari SA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Sajjadi SA. J. Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2023 Jan 20;82(2):120-126. PMID: 36562637.

Study of neuropathological changes and dementia in 100 centenarians in The 90+ Study. Neuville R, Biswas R, Ho CC, Bukhari S, Sajjai SA, Paganini-Hill A, Montine TJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Alzheimers Dement. 2023 Aug;19(8):3417-3425 [Online 2023 Feb 16]. PMID: 36795955. PMCID: PMC10427735 

Self-reported sleep in relation to risk of dementia a quarter of a century later at age 90+: The 90+ Study. Melikyan ZA, Kawas CH, Paganini-Hill A, Phelan MJ, Jian L, Mander BA, Corrada MM. Behav Sleep Med. 2023 Sep 3;21(5):620-632 [Online 23 Nov 2022]. PMID: 37540023 

Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropathologic Change and Vitamin Supplement Use Decades Earlier: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Bukhari SA, Montine TJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2023 Jan-Mar 01;37(1):1-6. PMID: 36821174. 

Superior global cognition in oldest-old is associated with resistance to neurodegenerative pathologies: Results from The 90+ Study. Biswas R, Kawas CH, Montine TJ, Bukhari SA, Jiang L, Corrada MM. J Alzheimers Dis. 2023;93(2):561-575. [Online 2023 Apr 10]. PMID: 37066908 

Characterization of hippocampal sclerosis of aging and its association with other neuropathologic changes and cognitive deficits in the oldest old. Sordo L, Qian T, Bukhari SA, Nguyen KM, Woodworth DC, Head E, Kawas CH, Corrada MM, Montine TJ, Sajjadi SA. Acta Neuropathol. 2023 Sep;146(3):415-432. [Online 2023 Jun 29]. PMID: 37382680. PMCID: PMC10412485. 

Characterizing pure Limbic-predominant Age-related TDP-43 Encephalopathy in the Oldest-Old: A Case Series. Leiby AC, Scambray KA, Nguyen HL, Basith F, Fakhraee S, Melikyan ZA, Bukhari SA, Montine TJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Sajjadi SA. J Alzheimers Dis. [Online 2023 Sep 19]. PMID: 37742640.


White matter microstructural correlates of associative learning in the oldest‑old. Merenstein JL, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Bennett IJ. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2022 Sep; PMID: 36163584.

Impact and risk factors of Limbic Predominant Age–Related TDP-43 Encephalopathy Neuropathologic Change in an oldest old cohort. Sajjadi SA, Bukhari S, Scambray K, Yan R, Kawas CH, Montine TJ, Corrada MM. Neurology. 2023 Jan 10;100(2):e203-e210. [Online 2022 Oct 27]; PMID: 36302666. PMCID: PMC9841447. 

Reduced structural connectivity of the medial temporal lobe including the perforant path is associated with aging and verbal memory impairment. Granger SJ, Perez LC, Larson MS, Phelan M, Keator D, Janecek J, Sathishkumar M, Smith A, McMillan L, Greenia D, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Yassa MA. Neurobiol Aging. 2022 Nov;121:119-128. PMID: 36434930. PMCID: PMC9841447. 

Methylation differences in Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologic change in the aged human brain. Lang AL, Eulalio T, Fox E, Yakabi K, Bukhari SA, Kawas CH, Corrada MM, Montgomery SB, Heppner FL, Capper D, Nachun D, Montine TJ. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2022 Nov; 10:174. PMID: 36447297. PMCID: PMC984144.7

Frequency of LATE neuropathologic change across the spectrum of Alzheimer’s Disease neuropathology: combined data from 13 community-based or population-based autopsy cohorts. Nelson PT, Brayne C, Flanagan ME, Abner EL, Agrawal S, Attems J, Castellani RJ, Corrada MM, Cykowski MD, Di J, Dickson DW, Dugger BN, Ervin JF, Fleming J, Graff-Radford J, Grinberg LT, Hokkanen SRK, Hunter S, Kapasi A, Kawas CH, Keage HAD, Keene CD, Kero M, Knopman DS, Kouri N, Kovacs GG, Labuzan SA, Larson EB, Latimer CS, Leite REP, Matchett BJ, Matthews FE, Merrick R, Montine TJ, Murray ME, Myllykangas L, Nag S, Nelson RS, Neltner JH, Nguyen AT, Petersen RC, Polvikoski T, Reichard RR, Rodriguez RD, Suemoto CK, Wang SHJ, Wharton SB, White L, Schneider JA. Acta Neuropatol. Published online Jul 2022. PMID: 35697880.

Cognition, function, and prevalent dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians: an individual participant data (IPD) met-analysis of 18 studies. Leung Y, Barzilai N, Batko-Szwaczka A, Beker N, Boerner, K, Brayne C, Brodaty H, Cheung KS, Corrada MM, Marlow T, Crawford JD, Galbussera A, Yasuyuki G, Holstege H, Hulsman M, Ishioka YL, Jopp D, Kawas C, Kaye J, Kochan NA, Lau BH, Lipnicki DM, Lo J, Lucca U, Makkar SR, Marcon G, Martin P, Meguro K, Milman, S, Poon LW, Recchia A, Ribeiro O, Riva E, Rott C, Sikkes SAM, Skoog I, Stephan B, Szewieczek J, Teixeira L, Tettamanti M, Wilczyński K, Sachdev PS.  Alzheimers Dement. Accepted for publication.

Posterior white matter hyperintensities are associated with reduced medial temporal lobe subregional integrity and long-term memory in older adults. Rizvi B, Sathishkumar M, Kim S, Márquez F, Granger SJ, Larson MS, Miranda BA, Hollearn MK, McMillan L, Nan B, Tustison NJ, Lao PJ, Brickman AM, Greenia D, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Yassa MA. Neuroimage Clin. 2022 Dec 28;37:103308. PMID: 36586358. 

AI-enabled in silico immunohistochemical characterization for Alzheimer’s disease. He B, Bukhari S, Fox E, Abid A, Shen J, Kawas C, Corrada M, Montine T, Zou J. Cell Rep Methods. Published online Mar 2022;2(4):100191. PMID: 35497493.

Hippocampal dentate gyrus integrity revealed with ultrahigh resolution diffusion imaging predicts memory performance in older adults. Granger SJ, Colon-Perez L, Larson MS, Bennet IJ, Phelan M, Keator DB, Janecek JT, Sathishkumar MT, Smith AP, McMillan L, Greenia D, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Yassa MA. Hippocampus. Published online July 2022; doi: 10.1002/hipo.23456. PMID: 35838075.

Dementia is associated with medial temporal atrophy even after accounting for neuropathologies. Woodworth DC, Sheikh-Bahaei N, Scambray KA, Phelan MJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Sajjadi SA. Brain Commun 2022 Mar 7; 4(2):fcac052. PMID: 35350552 PMCID: PMC8952251.

Cognitive resilience to three dementia-related neuropathologies in an oldest-old man: A case report from The 90+ Study. Melikyan ZA, Corrada MM, Leiby AM, Sajjadi SA, Bukhari S, Montine TJ, Kawas CH. Neurobiol Aging. Mar 2022;116:12-15. PMID: 35526514.

Gait Speed Reference Values for Adults Aged 90 and Older:  The 90+ Study. Colcord KA, Kawas CH, Corrada MC.. J Geriatr Phys Ther. Accepted for publication.

Association of cognition and dementia with neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions in the oldest-old. Montine TJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Bukhari MS, White LR, Tian L, Cholerton BA. Neurology. Published online Jun 2022. PMID: 35705500.


Utility of MRI in the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis of aging. Woodworth DC, Nguyen HL, Khan Z, Kawas CH, Corrada MM, Sajjadi SA.. Alzheimers Dement. 2021 May;17(5):847-855. [Epub Dec 7, 2020] PMID: 33615673.

What have we learned from cognition in the oldest-old. Kawas CH, Legdeur N, Corrada MM. Curr Opin Neurol. 2021 Apr 1;34(2):258-265. PMID: 33560671.

Neuroimaging in the Oldest-old: A review of the literature. Woodworth DC, Scambray KA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Sajjadi SA.  J Alzheimers Dis. 2021;82(1):129-147, 2021.

Norms and equivalences for MoCA-30, MoCA-22, and MMSE in the oldest-old. Melikyan ZA, Malek-Ahmadi M, O’Connor K, Atri A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Aging Clin Ex Res. 2021 May 29. PMID: 34050916.

Age affects white matter microstructure and episodic memory across the older adult lifespan. Merenstein JL, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Bennett IJ. Neurobiol Aging. 2021 Jul 4;106:282-291. PMID: 34332220.

Kidney function is not related to brain amyloid burden on PET imaging in the 90+ Study cohort. Lau WL, Fisher M, Greenia D, Troutt H, Fletcher E, De Carli C, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Paganini-Hill A. Front Med. 2021 Sep 20;8:671945. PMID: 34616751.

Regional Cortical Thickness Predicts Top Cognitive Performance in the Elderly. Dominguez EN, Stark S, Ren Y, Corrada MM, Kawas C, Stark C Front Aging Neurosci. 2021 Nov 4; 13:751375. PMID: 34803657.


Prior endogenous and exogenous estrogen and incident dementia in the 10th decade of life: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Climacteric23(3):311-315. [Epub Feb 28, 2020]. PMID: 32107945. PMCID: PMC7210048

Cystatin C, cognition and brain MRI findings in 90+ year-olds. Lau WL, Fisher M, Greenia D, Floriolli D, Fletcher E, Singh B, Sajjadi AS, Corrada MM, Whittle C, Kawas CH, Paganini-Hill A. Neurobiol Aging. 93:78-84, 2020. PMID: 32699142. PMCID: PMC7307913

Successful cognitive aging: What the oldest-old can teach us about resistance and resilience [editorial].  Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Neurology95(8):329-330, 2020. PMID: 32699142.

Mechanisms of cerebral microbleeds. Wadi LC, Grigoryan MM, Kim RC, Kim J, Corrada MM, Paganini-Hill A, Fisher MJ J Neuropath Exp Neur42(2):1093-1099, 2020. PMID: 32930790. PMCID: PMC7580489.

Cognition and Political Ideology in Aging. Fisher M, Phoenix D, Powell S, Mousa M, Rosenberg S, Greenia D, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Paganini-Hill A. JAGS  [Epub Oct 31, 2020]. PMID: 33128770.


The Neural Substrate of Memory Impairment in the Oldest old with Dementia; The 90+ Study. S. Ahmad Sajjadi, Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, Davis Woodworth, Dana Greenia, Maria Corrada, Claudia Kawas.Neurology; April 09, 2019; 92.P5.1-021.

What Are the Later Life Contributions to Reserve, Resilience, and Compensation? Neurobiology of Aging. Denise Park; Sara N Burke; Elizabeth C Mormino; Emily J Rogalski; Claudia H Kawas; Robert J Willis. 2019 Nov;83:140-144. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.03.023. PMID:31732017   PMCID:PMC6989050

Concepts for brain aging: resistance, resilience, reserve, and compensation. Montine TJ, Cholerton BA, Corrada MM, Edland SD, Flanagan ME, Hemmy LS, Kawas CH, White LR. Alzheimers Res Ther11(1):22, 2019. PMID: 30857563.

Blood pressure circadian variation, cognition, and brain imaging in 90+ year-olds. Paganini-Hill A, Bryant N, Corrada MM, Greenia DE, Fletcher E,  Singh B, Floriolli DR, Kawas CH, Fisher MJ.  Front Aging Neurosci. Apr 17;11:54[Epub Apr 17, 2019].PMID: 31057391.

Apolipoprotein E/Amyloid beta complex accumulates in AD cortical synapses via apoE receptors and is enhanced by APOE4. Bilousova T, Melnik M, Miyoshi E, Gonzalez BL, Poon WW, Vinters HV, Miller CA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Hatami A, Albay R III, Glabe C, Gylys KH. Am J Pathol. 189(8):1621-1636. [Epub May 17, 2019]. PMID: 31108099.

Neuropsychological test norms in cognitively intact oldest-old. Melikyan ZA, Corrada MM, Dick MB, Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 25(5):530-545, 2019. [Epub May 24, 2019]. PMID: 31122309.

White matter hyperintensities and hippocampal atrophy in relation to cognition: The 90+ Study. Legdeur N, Visser PJ, Woodworth DC, Muller M, Fletcher E, Maillard P, Scheltens P, DeCarli C, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. J Am Geriatr Soc.67(9):1827-1834.[Epub Jun 6, 2019]. PMID:31169919.


Recruiting the oldest‐old for clinical research. Melikyan ZA, Greenia DE, Corrada MM, Hester MM, Kawas C, Grill JD. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord [Epub May 4, 2018]. PMID:29734262.

Non‐Alzheimer’s disease contributions to dementia and cognitive resilience in The 90+ Study. Robinson JL, Corrada MM, Kovacs GG, Dominique M, Caswell C, Xie SX, Lee VMY, Kawas CH, Trojanowski JQ.  Acta Neuropathol 136:377‐388, 2018. [Epub Jun 18, 2018]. PMID:29916037.

Sleep, hippocampal volume, and cognition in adults over 90 years old. Sabeti S, Al‐Darsani Z, Mander BA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Aging Clin Exp Res. [Epub Sep 3, 2018]. PMID:30178444.

Risk factors of hippocampal sclerosis in the oldest old: The 90+ Study. Trieu T, Sajjadi ,Kawas CH, Nelson PT, Corrada MM. Neurology91(19):e1788-e1798, 2018. [Epub Oct 12, 2018]. PMID: 30315072

Positive mental attitude associated with lower 35-year mortality: The Leisure World Cohort Study.Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. J Aging Res[Epub Nov 25, 2018]. PMID: 30595919.


Age of onset of hypertension and risk of dementia in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Corrada MM, Hayden KM, Paganini-Hill A, Bullain SS, Paganini-Hill A, DeMoss J, Aguirre C, Brookmeyer R, Kawas CH. Alzheimer Dement. 13(2):103-110, 2017. [Epub Jan 16, 2017]. PMID: 28108119.

Lower likelihood of falling at age 90+ is associated with daily exercise a quarter of a century earlier: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Greenia DE, Perry SM, Sajjadi SA, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Age Ageing. 46(6):951-957, 2017. [Epub Mar 21, 2017]. PMID: 28369185.

Age-related white matter integrity differences in oldest-old without dementia. Bennett IJ, Greenia D, Maillard P, Sajaadi SA, DeCarli C, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Neurobiol Aging 56: 108-114, 2017. [Epub Apr 26, 2017]. PMID: 28527525.

Cancer – Incidence, prevalence and mortality in the oldest-old: A comprehensive review. Nolen SC, Evans MA, Fischer A, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Bota DA.  Mech Aging Dev 164:113-126, 2017. [Epub May 11, 2017]. PMID: 28502820.

Forecasting the prevalence of pre-clinical and clinical Alzheimer’s disease in the United States. Brookmeyer R, Abdallah N, Kawas CH,  Corrada MM. Alzheimer Dement 14:121-129, 2018.  [Epub Dec 7, 2017]. PMID: 29233480.


Prevalence of Frailty and Factors Associated with Frailty in Individuals Aged 90 and Older: The 90+ Study. Lee DR, Kawas CH, Gibbs L, Corrada MM. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Nov;64(11):2257-2262. PMID: 27590837.

Microinfarcts are common and strongly related to dementia in the oldest-old: The 90+ study. Corrada MM, Sonnen JA, Kim RC, Kawas CH. Alzheimers Dement. 2016 Aug;12(8):900-8. PMID: 27243907.

Sound Body Sound Mind? Physical Performance and the Risk of Dementia in the Oldest-Old: The 90+ Study. Bullain SS, Corrada MM, Perry SM, Kawas CH. J Am Geriatr Soc.  2016 Jul;64(7):1408-15. PMID: 27377238.

Impact of interventions to reduce Alzheimer’s disease pathology on the prevalence of dementia in the oldest-old. Brookmeyer R, Kawas CH, Abdallah N, Paganini-Hill A, Kim RC, Corrada MM. Alzheimers Dement. 2016 Mar;12(3):225-32. PMID: 26900132.

Synaptic Aβ oligomers precede p‐tau and differentiate high pathology control cases. Bilousova T, Miller CA, Poon WW, Vinters HV, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Hayden EY, Teplow DB, Glabe C, Albay R 3rd, Cole GM, Teng E, Gylys KH. Am J Pathol. 2016 Jan; 186(1):185‐198. PMID: 26718979.


Brain‐derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB expression in the “oldest‐old,” the 90+Study: correlation with cognitive status and levels of soluble amyloid‐beta. Michalski B, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Fahnestock M. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Dec.; 36(12):3130‐3139. PMID: 26410307.

Multiple pathologies are common and related to dementia in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Kawas CH, Kim RC, Sonnen JA, Bullain SS, Trieu T, Corrada MM. Neurology. 2015 Jul 15. PMID:26180144.

Lifestyle Factors and Dementia in the Oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2015 Mar 6. PMID:25710250.

Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 15;181(2):120-6. PMID:25550360.


Intracellular amyloid and the neuronal origin of Alzheimer neuritic plaques. Pensalfini A, Albay R 3rd, Rasool S, Wu JW, Hatami A, Arai H, Margol L, Milton S, Poon WW, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Glabe CG. Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Nov;71:53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2014.07.011. Epub 2014 Aug 1. PMID:25092575.

ABCC9 gene polymorphism is associated with hippocampal sclerosis of aging pathology. Nelson PT, Estus S, Abner EL, Parikh I, Malik M, Neltner JH, Ighodaro E, Wang WX, Wilfred BR, Wang LS, Kukull WA, Nandakumar K, Farman ML, Poon WW, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Cribbs DH, Bennett DA, Schneider JA, Larson EB, et al. Acta Neuropathol. 127(6):825-843, 2014. PMID: 24770881.

Exponential increases in the prevalence of disability in the oldest old: a Canadian national survey. Guay M, Dubois MF, Corrada M, Lapointe-Garant MP, Kawas C.  Gerontology. 60(5):395-401, 2014. PMID: 24818716.

Perforant path synaptic loss correlates with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease in the oldest-old. Robinson JL, Molina-Porcel L, Corrada MM, Raible K, Lee EB, Lee VM, Kawas CH, Trojanowski JQ.  Brain. 137(Pt 9):2578-2587, 2014. PMID: 25012223. PMCID: 4132652.

Intracellular amyloid and the neuronal origin of Alzheimer neuritic plaques. Pensalfini A, Albay R, 3rd, Rasool S, Wu JW, Hatami A, Arai H, Margol L, Milton S, Poon WW, Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Glabe CG.  Neurobiol Dis. 71C:53-61, 2014. PMID: 25092575.


Dementia in the oldest-oldBullain SS, Corrada MM.  Neurology Continuum (Minneap Minn) 19(2 Dementia):457-469, 2013. PMID: 23558489.

DRD4 genotype predicts longevity in mouse and human. Grady D, Thanos P, Corrada MM, Barnett J, Ciobanu V, Shustarovich D, Napoli A, Grandy D, Moyzis A, Rubinstein M, Wang G-J, Kawas C, Chen C, Dong Q, Wang E, Volkow N, Moyzis R. Journal of Neuroscience 33:286-291,2013. PMID: 23283341.

Responders Versus Nonresponders in a Dementia Study of the Oldest Old: The 90+ Study. Paganini-Hill A, Ducey B, Hawk M. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2013 Apr 7. PMID: 23568592.

Amyloid imaging and cognitive decline in non-demented oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Kawas CH, Greenia DE, Bullain SS, Clark CM, Pontecorvo MJ, Joshi AD, Corrada MM.  Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2013 Mar 9:199-203. [Epub 2012 Nov 1]. PMID: 23164550. PMCID: 3604036.

Neocortical b-amyloid area is associated with dementia and APOE in the oldest-old. Berlau DJ, Corrada MM, Robinson JL, Geser F, Arnold SE, Lee, VM-Y, Kawas CH, Trojanowski JQ. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2013 Mar 6: pii: S1552-5260. PMID: 23474043.

Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds. Paganini-Hill A. J Hous Elderly. 2013 Jan 1;27(1-2):191-205. PMID: 25288828.

APOE genotype, dementia, and mortality in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Corrada MM, Paganini-Hill A, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2013 Jan 9(1):12-8. [Epub 2012 Nov 2]. PMID: 23123227.

Poor Physical Performance and Dementia in the Oldest-Old: The 90+ Study. Bullain SS, Corrada MM, Shah BA, Mozaffar FH, Panzenboeck M, Kawas CH. JAMA Neurology. 2013 Jan 7(1):107-13. PMID: 23090391.


Hypertension and dementia in the elderly: the leisure world cohort study. Paganini-Hill A. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012:205350. PMID: 22229084.

Alzheimer disease pathology and longitudinal cognitive performance in the oldest-old with no dementia. Balasubramanian AB, Kawas CH, Peltz CB et al.  Neurology. 2012 Aug 28;79:915-921. PMID: 22895581.

Cognitive impairment in non-demented oldest-old:  prevalence and relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. Peltz CB, Corrada MM, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2012; 8(2):87-94. [Epub Nov 4, 2011]. PMID: 22055654. PMCID: 3276712.

A population-based clinicopathological study in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Corrada MM, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2012;9:709-717. PMID: 22471863. PMCID: 3409303.

Disability in the Oldest-old: Incidence and Risk Factors in The 90+ Study. Berlau DJ, Corrada MM, Peltz CB, Kawas CH.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012, 20:159-168. PMID: 22273736. PMCID: 3266513.


Neocortical and hippocampal amyloid-beta and tau measures associate with dementia in the oldest-old. Robinson JL, Geser F, Corrada MM, Berlau DJ, Arnold SE, Kawas CH, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ.  Brain. 134(Pt 12):3705-3712, 2011. PMID: 22120149. PMCID: 3235569.

Lifestyle practices and cardiovascular disease mortality in the elderly: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A. Cardiol Res Pract. 2011;2011:983764.

Activities and mortality in the elderly: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66:559-567. PubMedCentID: 3074957.

Incidence of dementia in oldest-old with amnestic MCI and other cognitive impairments. Peltz CB, Corrada MM, Berlau DJ, Kawas CH. Neurology. 2011; 77:1906-1912. PMID: 22076544. PMCID: 3233189

Bathing as a potential target for disability reduction in the oldest old. Berlau DJ, Corrada MM, Peltz CB, Kawas CH. Am J Public Health. 2011 Feb;101:200-201.

Diagnosing dementia in the oldest-old. Brumback-Peltz C, Balasubramanian AB, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Maturitas. 2011 Oct;70:164-168. PubMedCentID: 3171568.


Being overweight in adults aged 70-75 is associated with a reduction in mortality risk compared with normal BMI. Corrada MM, Paganini-Hill A. Evid Based Med. 2010;15:126-127.

Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Corrada MM, Brookmeyer R, Paganini-Hill A, Berlau D, Kawas CH. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:114-121.

Abnormal EEGs in cognitively and physically healthy oldest old: findings from The 90+ Study. Peltz CB, Kim HL, Kawas CH. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;27:292-295.


High levels of serum C-reactive protein are associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality, but not dementia, in the oldest-old: Results from The 90+ Study. Kravitz BA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57:641-646.

The prevalence of disability in the oldest-old is high and continues to increase with age: findings from The 90+ Study. Berlau DJ, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:1217-1225.

APOE epsilon2 is associated with intact cognition but increased Alzheimer pathology in the oldest old. Berlau DJ, Corrada MM, Head E, Kawas CH. Neurology. 2009;72:829-834.

Synaptic proteins, neuropathology and cognitive status in the oldest-old. Head E, Corrada MM, Kahle-Wrobleski K, Kim RC, Sarsoza F, Goodus M, Kawas CH. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30:1125-1134.

Elevated C-reactive protein levels are associated with prevalent dementia in the oldest-old. Kravitz BA, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5:318-323.


Prevalence of dementia after age 90: results from The 90+ Study. Corrada MM, Brookmeyer R, Berlau D, Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH. Neurology. 2008;71:337-343.

The oldest old and The 90+ Study. Kawas CH. Alzheimers Dement. 2008;4:S56-59.


Sensitivity and specificity of the mini-mental state examination for identifying dementia in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Kahle-Wrobleski K, Corrada MM, Li B, Kawas CH. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55:284-289.

Type of alcohol consumed, changes in intake over time and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Age Ageing. 2007;36:203-209.

Neuropsychological data in nondemented oldest-old: The 90+ Study. Whittle C, Corrada MM, Dick M, Ziegler R, Kahle-Wrobleski K, Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2007;29:290-299.

Dissociation of neuropathologic findings and cognition: case report of an apolippoprotein E e2/e2 genotype. Berlau DJ, Kahle-Wrobleski K, Head E, M G, Kim R, Kawas CH. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:1193-1196.

Non-alcoholic beverage and caffeine consumption and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Prev Med. 2007;44:305-310.


Increased longevity in older users of postmenopausal estrogen therapy: the Leisure World Cohort Study. Paganini-Hill A, Corrada MM, Kawas CH. Menopause. 2006;13:12-18.

Association of body mass index and weight change with all-cause mortality in the elderly. Corrada MM, Kawas CH, Mozaffar F, Paganini-Hill A. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:938-949.

Alzheimer’s and dementia in the oldest-old: a century of challenges. Kawas CH, Corrada MM. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2006;3:411-419.


Computerized neuropsychiatric assessment of geriatric subjects by content analysis of brief samples of their speech. Gottschalk LA, Kawas CH, Hoang A, Bechtel RJ. Comput Inform Nurs. 2004;22:351-355.

Old News is Good News is the The 90+Study newsletter designed to keep you informed of our research progress.
  • 2018


  • We are excited to share a few of the articles that have been written about The 90+ Study throughout the course of our research since 2003

    Current News

    ¿Cómo podrías llegar a cumplir más de 90 años de edad?


    CNN en Español 

    Maria Corrada - ¿Cómo podrías llegar a cumplir más de 90 años de edad?


    The Latest on Alzheimer’s Disease: What Researchers Are Learning About the Disease

    Houston Public Media


    Dana Greenia, RN, MS Interviewed About The 90+ Study

    Laguna Woods Village TV Station – October 2022


    Laguna Woods resident endured horrors of Holocaust and got a fresh start in the U.S.

    The Orange County Register – October 2022


    Why more of us are living to 100

    MPR News with Kerri Miller- April 2021


    Link for 60 Minutes:

    The 90+ Study on CBS’s 60 Minutes 2020

    The 90+ Study was featured for a second time on the November 22nd, 2020
    broadcast of 60 Minutes with Leslie Stahl. You can watch the full
    segment here.

    To watch the 60 Minutes segment from 2014, scroll down to the Past News
    section below.


    Past News

    Late-age onset of high blood pressure may reduce risk of dementia, UCI study finds

    Los Angeles Times- January 2017 

    When the Pressure Is High the Dementia Is Low

    Sounds of Science Podcasts- January 2017


    The 90+ Study was featured on the May 4th, 2014 broadcast of 60 Minutes with Leslie Stahl. You can watch the full episode with the link below.

    The 90+Study on CBS’s 60 Minutes 2014


    Living past 90: Caffeine, alcohol, and extra weight may be good for you

    CBS News – 2014

    Run on the local Laguna Woods Village channel, Dr. Claudia Kawas discusses the 90+ Study and the study’s recently reopened recruitment


    Dr. Claudia Kawas also made an appearance on Fox’s Good Day LA to respond to the 60 Minutes episode after it aired.



    Every year The 90+ Study hosts a luncheon to appreciate and honor those individuals that have given their time and efforts to the research study. With more and more people volunteering for the research, the attendance continues to grow.


    The staff of The 90+ Study is truly grateful for all you have done to further our understanding of ways to aid future generations in leading long, productive and healthy lives. This is YOUR LEGACY.

    Through all of your passion and dedication to our mission, The 90+ Study at the University of California, Irvine has achieved a number of great successes. Our investigators, Drs. Claudia Kawas, Maria Corrada, and Annlia Paganini-Hill, are extremely well published in the field of aging and dementia and continue to be very successful in break-through research around the world.

    Ways to donate

    Click an option below:

    1. Click the button above, print the PDF and complete the form
    2. Checks are payable to “UCI FOUNDATION” with “THE 90+ STUDY” written in the memo area
    3.  Mail the filled in form and your check to:

             Claudia Kawas M.D., 1121 Gillespie, Irvine, CA 92697-4540



    1. Click the “Online Donations” button above and complete the online form.
    2. Be sure that The 90+ Study is the selected designation

    Interested in volunteering or know someone over 90 years old who might want to participate in
    The 90+Study?

    Take a look at the eligibility criteria listed below


    Click on the photo for a larger view.


    Contact us today to get started!

    Phone: (949) 768-3635


    Mailing address:

    24361 El Toro Road Suite 150

    Laguna Woods, CA 92637




    At present, a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is made by examining brain tissue. An autopsy provides accurate and comprehensive information about the cause of the clinical diagnosis of dementia during life.  Many families find that receiving the final pathological diagnosis provides closure and resolution to the caregiving experience and important information about their own medical risks.

    In addition, the autopsy contributes greatly to our scientific understanding of the effects of the disease on the brain and may lead to better treatments in the future.

    Finally, brain donation provides the opportunity for the individual and their family to provide a gift of hope to future generations in the fight against Alzheimer’s and other brain diseases.



    Participants enrolled in UCI’s 90+ Study and who have agreed to in-person visits and longitudinal follow-up, are eligible for brain donation. Brain donation by non-research participants is, unfortunately, far less valuable to scientific study.



    A signed informed consent form is all that is needed to be enrolled in the program.  Without the signed consent, the legal next-of-kin must authorize the brain autopsy before it can be performed.



    To donate your brain for the betterment of humanity and to improve the lives of others in the future is compatible with the teachings of nearly all religions.  If you are concerned about brain donation and your religious faith, we encourage you to discuss this issue with your spiritual leader.



    A brain autopsy will have little or no effect on funeral arrangements.  The procedure is performed very carefully and does not interfere with plans for open casket viewing or cremation.



    The brain is examined by a pathologist to establish a definitive diagnosis.  This process is quite complex and can take several months to complete.  Once finished, a comprehensive report is sent to the participant’s family.  After the examination, portions of the brain will be stored for future investigations by researchers at the UCI ADRC and Stanford University. The identity of all brain donors remains strictly confidential.

    Strides in research can only be made through the generosity of others. It is through these gifts that we can help promote research and fuel determination to find answers and a cure.



    The 90+ Study
    24361 El Toro Road, Suite 150
    Laguna Woods, CA 92637
    Telephone: 949.768.3635
    Fax: 949.768.7695


    For more information about brain donation, please consider reading the following articles:

    Why My Grandmother Carried a Plastic Brain in her Purse 

    Will my soul go to heaven if they take my brain? Beliefs and worries about brain donation among four ethnic groups

    ‘Brain Banks’: Why these scientists want your brain

    Autopsy and Religion

    Religious Views on Organ Donation


    (949) 768-3635

    Mailing address:

    24361 El Toro Road Suite 150

    Laguna Woods, CA 92867